Tristetraprolin (TTP) is an RNA-binding protein required for the rapid degradation of mRNAs containing AU-rich elements. Targets regulated by TTP include the mRNAs encoding tumor necrosis factor-alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and immediate early response 3. To identify novel target mRNAs of TTP in macrophages, we used a genome-wide approach that combines RNA immunoprecipitation and microarray analysis. A list was compiled of 137 mRNAs that are associated with TTP with an estimated accuracy on the order of 90%. Sequence analysis revealed a highly significant enrichment of AU-rich element motifs, with AUUUA pentamers present in 96% and UUAUUUAUU nonamers present in 44% of TTP-associated mRNAs. We further show that IL-10 is a novel target regulated by TTP. IL-10 mRNA levels were found to be elevated because of a reduced decay rate in primary macrophages from TTP(-/-) mice. Our study demonstrates the importance of experimental approaches for identifying targets of RNA-binding proteins.