The emergence of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a viable alternative to traditional cholecystectomy has been greeted with enthusiasm by the surgical community. This new technique is not without complications, both potential and real. The complications associated with diagnostic laparoscopy are well documented, as are those associated with traditional cholecystectomy. All of these may also be seen with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The incidence of their occurrence, however, may vary. It remains too early to evaluate the complication rates from this new procedure, as reports of large series are just beginning to emerge. Early reports are encouraging but caution that bile duct injury, hemorrhage, and even death may occur. Early enthusiasm for this new method must be tempered with care in its practice if complication rates are to be maintained at an acceptable level and the procedure is to earn a permanent place in the armamentarium of the surgeon.