Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination in the United States

Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Feb;14(2):244-51. doi: 10.3201/eid1402.070499.


We describe a simplified model, based on the current economic and health effects of human papillomavirus (HPV), to estimate the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination of 12-year-old girls in the United States. Under base-case parameter values, the estimated cost per quality-adjusted life year gained by vaccination in the context of current cervical cancer screening practices in the United States ranged from $3,906 to $14,723 (2005 US dollars), depending on factors such as whether herd immunity effects were assumed; the types of HPV targeted by the vaccine; and whether the benefits of preventing anal, vaginal, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers were included. The results of our simplified model were consistent with published studies based on more complex models when key assumptions were similar. This consistency is reassuring because models of varying complexity will be essential tools for policy makers in the development of optimal HPV vaccination strategies.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Health Policy
  • Humans
  • Immunization Programs
  • Models, Econometric*
  • Papillomaviridae / immunology*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / economics*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines* / administration & dosage
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines* / economics
  • Quality-Adjusted Life Years
  • United States
  • Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / diagnosis
  • Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / prevention & control
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Vaccination / economics*


  • Papillomavirus Vaccines