Improved T cell responses to Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein in mice and monkeys induced by a novel formulation of RTS,S vaccine antigen

Vaccine. 2008 Feb 20;26(8):1072-82. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.12.018. Epub 2008 Jan 7.


Protection against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite infection can be achieved by vaccination with the recombinant circumsporozoite protein-based vaccine RTS,S formulated with the AS02A Adjuvant System. Since this protection is only partial and wanes over time, we have developed a new RTS,S-based vaccine adjuvanted with AS01B. RTS,S/AS01B-induced high specific antibody titers and increased the frequency of mouse CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressing IFN-gamma, and of monkey CD4(+) T cells expressing IL-2 and/or IFN-gamma and/or TNF-alpha upon stimulation with vaccine antigens. Our data provides clear evidence that combining RTS,S antigen with a potent adjuvant induces strong humoral and cellular responses in vivo.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Protozoan / blood
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Female
  • Interferon-gamma / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-2 / biosynthesis
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Malaria Vaccines / immunology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Plasmodium falciparum / immunology*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / biosynthesis


  • Antibodies, Protozoan
  • Interleukin-2
  • Malaria Vaccines
  • RTS,S-AS01B vaccine
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Interferon-gamma