The CD45 family of high-Mr glycoprotein antigens is expressed in some molecular form on all lymphohematopoietic cells. Different cell types express various isoforms in a precisely programmed fashion. In addition to cell surface CD45 antigens, we recently demonstrated a cytoplasmic granule-associated pool of CD45RA, the highest Mr isoform, in mature neutrophils that is generally absent from the cell surface under nonstimulatory conditions. Under such conditions, the major cell surface form is CD45RO, the low-Mr isoform. In the present study, we demonstrate the ability of calcium ionophore A23187 to induce translocation of cytoplasmic CD45RA to the cell surface as well as to increase the cell surface expression of CD45RO and CD45. This process was calcium dependent and rapid, occurring within 5 min. A series of experiments using chemical antagonists of protein kinases suggest that this up-regulation may be mediated via the calmodulin system rather than via protein kinase C. Although the exact function(s) of the various isoforms of CD45 is not known, this translocation suggests a role for CD45RA in neutrophil activation.