The proglucagon gene (glu) encodes the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), produced in the intestinal endocrine L cells. We found previously that the bipartite transcription factor beta-catenin/T cell factor (cat/TCF), the major effector of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, activates intestinal glu expression and GLP-1 production. We show here that 100 nm insulin stimulated glu expression and enhanced GLP-1 content in the intestinal GLUTag L cell line as well as in primary fetal rat intestinal cell cultures. Increased intestinal glu mRNA expression and GLP-1 content were also observed in vivo in hyperinsulinemic MKR mice. In the GLUTag cells, insulin-induced activation of glu expression occurred through the same TCF site that mediates cat/TCF activation. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibition, but not protein kinase B inhibition, attenuated the stimulation by insulin. Furthermore, nuclear beta-catenin content in the intestinal L cells was increased by insulin. Finally, insulin enhanced the binding of TCF-4 and beta-catenin to the TCF site in the glu promoter G2 enhancer element, as determined by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Collectively, these findings indicate that enhancement of beta-catenin nuclear translocation and cat/TCF binding are among the mechanisms underlying cross talk between the insulin and Wnt signaling pathways in intestinal endocrine L cells.