The pituitary gland secretes vital trophic hormones that maintain homeostatic regulation of the metabolic milieu. Not surprisingly, several thousand papers relevant to the pituitary gland were published this past year, including publication of important transforming advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of pituitary disorders. In an attempt to focus on outstanding key articles reporting highlights of the year, quality inclusion criteria were applied. High-quality articles were selected for their translational impact, scientific advances, enrichment of new knowledge, influence on how we understand pituitary disorders, transformation of therapeutic principles, and opening up new research vistas. Using these selection criteria, highlighted papers within the following categorical topics were further selected for analysis and review: advances in understanding subcellular mechanisms subserving the pathogenesis of pituitary disorders including pituitary tumors and pituitary failure; new challenges facing the physician treating patients harboring prolactinomas with dopamine agonists; and the appearance of new publications reporting the efficacy of long-term prospective medical treatment of acromegaly that now provide more rigorous patient outcome information. Selected papers categorized by these topics all serve to significantly impact how the endocrinologist views disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment outcomes of patients with pituitary disease in 2007. The results of these publications have transformed our understanding of important principles underlying normal and abnormal pituitary function, as well as our approach to the management of pituitary disorders. Notably, they open up new vistas for creative scholarship in unraveling the challenges of pituitary medicine.