Nutrition effects on mortality in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study) were investigated using interview and follow up. Multivitamin and vitamin E use was found to be associated with lower mortality from cerebrovascular disease (CVD). For all causes, CVD and ischemic heart disease (IHD), total energy intake and cutting breakfast were associated with elevated, while rice intake, fruit, sweets, tofu, pickles, dried fish, deep-fried foods, tea and coffee and seaweed were generally linked with lowered mortality. Consistent across the sexes, protection was evident against lung cancer with seaweed, prostate cancer with fresh fish, and liver cancer with pork and rice intake. Positive associations were found between potato consumption and colon cancer, as well as for fat intake and liver cancer. Clearly, the diet has a major impact on chronic disease processes in the Japanese population.