Occupational factors and mortality were assessed in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for evaluation of cancer. Overall an elevated risk of death from all causes, all cancers and circulatory disease, particularly in males, was found for those who were unemployed or to a lesser extent, self-employed. Certain cancers also showed links. There was no difference in the risk of total death or death due to cancers between office workers and manual workers. However, manual workers of both sexes have a decreased risk of death due to colon cancer and of breast in females. In males, rotating shift work increased risk of total death and ischemic heart diseases. Slight increase overall with dusty and noisy environments, perceived stress linked with IHD and CVD.