Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that both robust neutralizing antibodies and potent cellular responses play important roles in controlling primary HIV-1 infection. In this study we have investigated the induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses to HIV gp120 monomer immunogen administered intranasally in a novel, oil-in-water nanoemulsion (NE) adjuvant. Mice and guinea pigs intranasally immunized by the application of recombinant HIV gp120 antigen mixed in NE demonstrated robust serum anti-gp120 IgG, as well as bronchial, vaginal, and serum anti-gp120 IgA in mice. The serum of these animals demonstrated antibodies that cross-reacted with heterologous serotypes of gp120 and had significant neutralizing activity against two clade-B laboratory strains of HIV (HIVBaL and HIVSF162) and five primary HIV-1 isolates. The analysis of gp120-specific CTL proliferation, INF-gamma induction, and prevalence of anti-gp120 IgG2 subclass antibodies indicated that nasal vaccination in NE also induced systemic, Th1-polarized cellular immune responses. This study suggests that NE should be evaluated as a mucosal adjuvant for multivalent HIV vaccines.