Nasal immunization with a recombinant HIV gp120 and nanoemulsion adjuvant produces Th1 polarized responses and neutralizing antibodies to primary HIV type 1 isolates

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2008 Feb;24(2):271-81. doi: 10.1089/aid.2007.0148.


Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that both robust neutralizing antibodies and potent cellular responses play important roles in controlling primary HIV-1 infection. In this study we have investigated the induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses to HIV gp120 monomer immunogen administered intranasally in a novel, oil-in-water nanoemulsion (NE) adjuvant. Mice and guinea pigs intranasally immunized by the application of recombinant HIV gp120 antigen mixed in NE demonstrated robust serum anti-gp120 IgG, as well as bronchial, vaginal, and serum anti-gp120 IgA in mice. The serum of these animals demonstrated antibodies that cross-reacted with heterologous serotypes of gp120 and had significant neutralizing activity against two clade-B laboratory strains of HIV (HIVBaL and HIVSF162) and five primary HIV-1 isolates. The analysis of gp120-specific CTL proliferation, INF-gamma induction, and prevalence of anti-gp120 IgG2 subclass antibodies indicated that nasal vaccination in NE also induced systemic, Th1-polarized cellular immune responses. This study suggests that NE should be evaluated as a mucosal adjuvant for multivalent HIV vaccines.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic*
  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Animals
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cross Reactions
  • Emulsions / administration & dosage*
  • Female
  • Guinea Pigs
  • HIV Antibodies / blood*
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp120 / administration & dosage
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp120 / immunology*
  • HIV-1 / immunology*
  • Immunoglobulin A / analysis
  • Immunoglobulin A / blood
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Interferon-gamma / biosynthesis
  • Lung / chemistry
  • Lung / immunology
  • Mice
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology*
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / immunology
  • Vagina / chemistry
  • Vagina / immunology


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Emulsions
  • HIV Antibodies
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp120
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Vaccines, Synthetic
  • gp120 protein, Human immunodeficiency virus 1
  • Interferon-gamma