Mitochondria play important roles in cellular energy production, free radical generation, and apoptosis. In a previous report, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) G10398A (Thr-->Ala) polymorphism was associated with breast cancer risk in African-American women [Cancer Res 2005;65:8028-33]. We sought to replicate the association by genotyping the G10398A polymorphism in multiple established population-based case-control studies of breast cancer in African-American women. The 10398A allele was not significantly associated with risk in any of the studies: San Francisco (542 cases, 282 controls, odds ratio OR = 1.73, 95% confidence interval CI = 0.87-3.47, P = 0.12); Multiethnic Cohort (391 cases, 460 controls, OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.62-1.86, P = 0.79); and CARE and LIFE (524 cases, 236 controls, OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.43-1.52, P = 0.50). With data pooled across the studies (1,456 cases and 978 controls), no significant association was observed with the 10398A allele (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.80-1.62, P = 0.47, test for heterogeneity = 0.30). In analysis of advanced breast cancer cases (n = 674), there was also no significant association (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.76-1.82, P = 0.46). Our results do not support the hypothesis that the mtDNA G10398A polymorphism is, as has previously been reported, a marker of breast cancer risk in African Americans.