Antibodies to the neutrophil-specific antigens NA1 and NA2 are associated with alloimmune neonatal neutropenia (ANN), autoimmune neutropenia of childhood, and acute pulmonary transfusion reactions. These antigens have been found to be located on the neutrophil Fc-gamma receptor III (FcRIII). The mother of a child with ANN was found to lack both NA antigens and to produce an antibody that reacted with all normal neutrophils tested. We used maternal antibody and a CD16 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) that has specificity for FcRIII to immunoblot and immunoprecipitate neutrophil membranes of various NA phenotypes. Both antibodies immunoblotted an approximately 40- to 70-Kd glycoprotein (GP) on NA1, NA2-positive membrane, an approximately 40- to 55-Kd GP on NA1-homozygous membranes, and an approximately 55- to 70-Kd GP on NA2-homozygous membranes. Both antibodies also immunoprecipitated a 50- to 80-Kd GP from NA1, NA2-positive cells, a 50- to 60-Kd GP from NA1-homozygous cells, and a 55- to 80-Kd GP from NA2-homozygous cells. To further examine the specificity of the maternal antibody, sequential immunoprecipitation studies were performed using maternal antisera and a CD16 MoAb. After extracts of 125I surface-labeled neutrophils were precleared with maternal serum, CD16 MoAbs no longer immunoprecipitated any GP. Neither the CD16 MoAb nor a rabbit polyclonal antibody specific for FcRIII detected any GP in maternal neutrophil membranes by immunoblotting. Neutrophil FcRIII is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchored membrane GP as is decay accelerating factor and both are absent from neutrophils of patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). Maternal neutrophil membranes were probed with antibody specific for DAF and an 80-Kd GP was detected. This woman also has had no clinical evidence of PNH. These studies provide further evidence that the NA1 and NA2 antigens are on FcRIII and identify a healthy person whose neutrophils lack not only the neutrophil specific antigens NA1 and NA2 but multiple other epitopes of FcRIII and, therefore, likely lack FcRIII entirely.