Strict long-term glycemic control has been reported to prevent or improve diabetic peripheral neuropathy, but the effects of short-term glycemic control have not been clarified in patients with type 2 diabetes. To investigate reversibility of impaired vibratory sensation by short-term glycemic control, we used the TM31 liminometer and C64 tuning fork methods to measure peripheral neuropathy. Thirty-one type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control (HbA1c: 10.8+/-0.4%, mean+/-S.E.M., range from 7.9% to 16.2%) were administered strict glycemic control. Vibratory sensation before and after short-term glycemic control was evaluated, and the metabolic profile including plasma glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and free fatty acid (FFA) was measured. After 20.0+/-2.1 days of strict glycemic control, vibratory sensation improved significantly in both upper and lower extremities, assessed by TM31 liminometer and C64 tuning fork. Along with the improved glycemic control, lipid metabolism (total cholesterol, triglyceride and FFA) was significantly improved. Thus, short-term intensive glycemic control can improve vibratory sensation, metabolic changes in glucose and lipid metabolism being the factors responsible for improved of peripheral nerve function.