Because dry eye disease is rare in children and its pathogenesis is less well known than in adults, its diagnosis is often overlooked. It can occur in association with a number of congenital, autoimmune, endocrine, and inflammatory disorders, or under certain environmental and nutritional conditions. In some cases, early detection allows the underlying cause of the dry eye to be successfully treated and eliminated. In other cases, the disease may represent a lifelong problem, whose proper management can prevent ulceration and scarring of the ocular surface. Because of the association of pediatric dry eye with other conditions, a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment is usually required. The purpose of this review is to enhance physician awareness of dry eye in children, to describe the most frequently associated conditions, and to discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic options available.