Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Classical Article
, 466 (3), 531-42

The Classic. Origin and Comparative Anatomy of the Pectoral Limb. Surgery of the Shoulder. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;1950:1-14

Classical Article

The Classic. Origin and Comparative Anatomy of the Pectoral Limb. Surgery of the Shoulder. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;1950:1-14

Anthony F DePalma. Clin Orthop Relat Res.

Figures

Fig. 1A–E
Fig. 1A–E
Hypothetical evolution of paired fins and their skeletal supports. (A) Primitive stage, characterized by continuous fin folds; the dorsal and ventral fins posterior to the anus are median and unpaired. (B) Elasmobranch stage; paired fin-folds persist only in the region of the pectoral and pelvic fins; median fins have become discontinuous. (C–E) Hypothetical stages in the evolution of the skeleton of the pelvic fins of elasmobranch fishes. The right side of C and E represents a later stage n the phylogenesis than the left. E represent the differentiated skeletons of the girdle and the extremity (after Wiedersheim). (Neal and Rand: Chordate Anatomy, Philadelphia, Blakiston)
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Formation of adult radial muscles from embryonic muscle buds, and their motor nerve supply. Above, embryonic stage with a pair of buds to each segment; below, adult stage with radial muscles compounded of material from adjacent buds, 1–4, four spinal nerves; A-D, four myomeres; a-d, muscle buds; r, radial muscle. (Goodrich, E. S.: Studies on the Structure and Development of Vertebrates, London, Macmillan, p. 134)
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Diagrams illustrating hypothetical evolution of the extremities of diapnoan (I), ganoid (H) and elasmobranch (G) from a fin fold supported by a series of similar radial cartilages. By fusion of radial cartilages basilia (basal cartilages) are formed. Skeletal supports of the fins eventually differ in relation of the basal elements to the radialia (Redrawn from A. Brazier Howell). (Neal and Rand: Chordate Anatomy, Philadelphia, Blakiston)
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Diagrams illustrating scheme of pectoral appendages of lower and higher vertebrates. (Bottom) Names of corresponding parts of pelvic appendages are shown in parentheses. (Neal and Rand: Chordate Anatomy, Philadelphia, Blakiston)
Fig. 5
Fig. 5
Diagram of reconstructed pectoral girdle and fin of Sauripterus and upper Devonian crossopterygian fish. It exhibits a close similarity of relations of proximal elements of extremity to those found in the pectoral extremity of tetrapods (redrawn from Brown). (Neal and Rand: Chordate Anatomy, Philadelphia, Blakiston)
Fig. 6A–F
Fig. 6A–F
Phylogenesis of the pectoral girdle. (A) Sauripterus (Devonian crossoterygian lung fish). (B) Eogyrinus (Carboniferous embolomerous amphibian). (C) Eryops (Permian rhachitomous amphibian). (D) Moschops (Permian dinocephalian reptile). (E) Cynognathus (Triassic theriodont reptile). (F) Macaca (an Old-World Recent monkey). (Howell: Speed in Animals, University of Chicago Press, p. 138)
Fig. 7
Fig. 7
Progressive decrease in scapular index in successive stages from the pronograde to the orthograde. (Redrawn from Inman, Saunders and Abbott: J. Bone & Joint Surg, 26:2)
Fig. 8
Fig. 8
Gradual increase in spine of the scapula and the acromion process during development from the pronograde to the orthograde. This change reflects the increasing importance of the deltoid muscle. Also note the increase in size of the coracoid process, the inequality of the two tuberosities of the head of the humerus and the inner displacement of the intertubercular sulcus in successive stages of development.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9
Changes in the thoracic cage, the scapula and the humerus, in successive stages from the pronograde to the orthograde. The thoracic cage shows flattening in the antero-posterior plane, and the scapula migrates to a dorsal position so that the glenoid cavity is directed laterally. The humerus shows a progressive increase in the torsion angle.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10
Progressive increase in torsion of the humerus resulting in inward rotation of the bicipital groove. The articular surfaces at either end of the humerus rotate in opposite directions.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11
Deltoid insertion migrates progressively to a lower level on the shaft of the humerus, indicating the significant role played by the deltoid in higher primates.

Comment in

  • Recurrent Dislocation of the Shoulder Joint
    RA Brand. Clin Orthop Relat Res 466 (3), 520-1. PMID 18264840.

    Dr. Anthony F. DePalma is shown. Photograph provided with kind permission of the Art Committee of Thomas Jeffers

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 2 PubMed Central articles

References

    1. None
    2. Ashley Montagu, F. M.: An Introduction to Physical Anthropology, Springfield, III., Thomas, 1947.
    1. {'text': '', 'index': 1, 'ids': [{'type': 'DOI', 'value': '10.1002/aja.1000010102', 'is_inner': False, 'url': 'https://doi.org/10.1002/aja.1000010102'}]}
    2. Bardeem, C. R., and Lewis, W. H.: Development of limbs, body wall and back, Am. J. Anat. 1:1–36, 1901.
    1. None
    2. Bunnell, S.: Surgery of the Hand, ed. 2, Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1948.
    1. None
    2. Goodrich, E. S.: Studies on the Structure and Development of Vertebrates, London, Macmillan, 1930.
    1. {'text': '', 'index': 1, 'ids': [{'type': 'DOI', 'value': '10.1111/j.1749-6632.1915.tb55178.x', 'is_inner': False, 'url': 'https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1915.tb55178.x'}]}
    2. Gregory, W. K.: Present status of the problem of the origin of the tetrapod with special reference to the skull and paired limbs, Ann. New York Acad. Science 26:317–383, 1915.

Personal name as subject

Feedback