Transcriptome and proteome expressions involved in insulin resistance in muscle and activated T-lymphocytes of patients with type 2 diabetes

Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics. 2007 Dec;5(3-4):216-35. doi: 10.1016/S1672-0229(08)60009-1.


We analyzed the genes expressed (transcriptomes) and the proteins translated (pro- teomes) in muscle tissues and activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes (T-cells) of five Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) subjects using Affymetrix microarrays and mass spectrometry, and compared them with matched non-diabetic controls. Gene expressions of insulin receptor (INSR), vitamin D receptor, insulin degrading enzyme, Akt, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), IRS-2, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and enzymes of the glycolytic pathway were decreased at least 50% in T2DM than in controls. However, there was greater than two-fold gene upregulation of plasma cell glycoprotein-1, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha, and gluconeogenic enzymes in T2DM than in controls. The gene silencing for INSR or TNFalpha resulted in the inhibition or stimulation of GLUT4, respectively. Proteome profiles corresponding to molecular weights of the above translated transcriptomes showed different patterns of changes between T2DM and controls. Meanwhile, changes in transcriptomes and proteomes between muscle and activated T-cells of T2DM were comparable. Activated T-cells, analogous to muscle cells, expressed insulin signaling and glucose metabolism genes and gene products. In conclusion, T-cells and muscle in T2DM exhibited differences in expression of certain genes and gene products relative to non-diabetic controls. These alterations in transcriptomes and proteomes in T2DM may be involved in insulin resistance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism / genetics
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / genetics*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Humans
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin Resistance / genetics*
  • Insulin Resistance / immunology
  • Insulin Resistance / physiology*
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism
  • Proteome
  • Proteomics
  • Signal Transduction
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes / metabolism


  • Insulin
  • Proteome