Purpose: Psychological outcomes, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and life satisfaction are compared between 7,147 adult childhood cancer survivors and 388 siblings from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, examining demographic and diagnosis/treatment outcome predictors.
Methods: Psychological distress, HRQOL, and life satisfaction were measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory-18, the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36, and Cantril Ladder of Life, respectively. A self-report questionnaire provided demographic/health information and medical record abstraction provided cancer/treatment data. Siblings' and survivors' scores were compared using generalized linear mixed models, and predictor effects of demographic and cancer/treatment variables were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression.
Results: Although survivors report greater symptoms of global distress (mean, 49.17; SE, 0.12) than do siblings (mean, 46.64; SE, 0.51), scores remain below population norms, indicating that survivors and siblings remain psychologically healthy. Survivors scored worse than siblings on overall physical (51.30 +/- 0.10 versus 54.98 +/- 0.44; P < 0.001) but not emotional aspects of HRQOL, but effect sizes were small, other than in vitality. Most survivors reported present (mean, 7.3; SD, 0.02) and predicted future (mean, 8.6; SD, 0.02) life satisfaction. Risk factors for psychological distress and poor HRQOL were female gender, lower educational attainment, unmarried status, annual household income <$20,000, unemployment, lack of medical insurance, having a major medical condition, and treatment with cranial radiation.
Conclusion: Compared with population norms, childhood cancer survivors and siblings report positive psychological health, good HRQOL, and life satisfaction. The findings identify targeted subgroups of survivors for intervention.