During development, axons elongate along the correct path toward their final targets. Growing axons maintain adhesive interactions with specific environmental cues via cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). The axon-environment adhesion must be dynamically controlled, both temporally and spatially, to enable the axons to navigate and migrate correctly. In this way, CAMs play a central role in mediating contact-dependent regulation of motile behavior of the axons. This chapter examines the mechanisms underlying how CAMs control axon growth and guidance, with a particular focus on intracellular signaling, trafficking, and interactions with the actin cytoskeleton.