Toxicoproteomics uses the discovery potential of proteomics in toxicology research by applying global protein measurement technologies to biofluids and tissues after host exposure to injurious agents. Toxicoproteomic studies thus far have focused on protein profiling of major organs and biofluids such as liver and blood in preclinical species exposed to model toxicants. The slow pace of discovery for new biomarkers, toxicity signatures and mechanistic insights is partially due to the limited proteome coverage derived from analysis of native organs, tissues and body fluids by traditional proteomic platforms. Improved toxicoproteomic analysis would result by combining higher data density LC-MS/MS platforms with stable isotope labelled peptides and parallel use of complementary platforms. Study designs that remove abundant proteins from biofluids, enrich subcellular structures and include cell specific isolation from heterogeneous tissues would greatly increase differential expression capabilities. By leveraging resources from immunology, cell biology and nutrition research communities, toxicoproteomics could make particular contributions in three inter-related areas to advance mechanistic insights and biomarker development: the plasma proteome and circulating microparticles, the adductome and idiosyncratic toxicity.