Cord Blood Islet Autoantibodies and Seasonal Association With the Type 1 Diabetes High-Risk Genotype

J Perinatol. 2008 Mar;28(3):211-7. doi: 10.1038/sj.jp.7211912. Epub 2008 Feb 14.

Abstract

Objective: Human leukocyte antigen DQ (HLA-DQ) genetic factors and islet autoantibodies are strongly associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and are currently used to predict T1D. This study examined whether islet autoantibodies in the cord blood of newborns to nondiabetic mothers were associated with the (T1D) high-risk genotype HLA-DQ2/8, gestational infections or both.

Study design: Cord blood samples were taken from 33 683 newborns and used for HLA typing and analyses of islet autoantibodies. Parents completed questionnaires when the child was 2 months of age.

Result: The prevalence of newborn islet autoantibodies consistently varied with season over 4 years (P<0.0001); lowest in first quarter (1.2%) and highest in third (2.4%). Cord blood islet autoantibodies were associated with HLA-DQ2/8 in the second (OR, 2.30; P=0.02), third (OR, 2.12; P=0.008) and fourth quarters (OR, 2.49; P=0.007), but not in the first (OR, 1.13). Reported gastroenteritis was additionally associated with islet autoantibodies in the third quarter (OR, 1.80, P=0.04).

Conclusion: An association between HLA and islet autoimmunity may depend on environmental exposure during pregnancy. Follow-up of mothers and children will determine risk of T1D.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Autoantibodies / immunology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / genetics
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / immunology
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Female
  • Fetal Blood / immunology
  • Gastroenteritis / immunology
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology
  • HLA-DQ Antigens* / genetics
  • HLA-DQ Antigens* / immunology
  • Histocompatibility Testing
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Islets of Langerhans / immunology
  • Odds Ratio
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / immunology*
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics* / genetics
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics* / immunology
  • Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 8 / immunology
  • Seasons

Substances

  • Autoantibodies
  • HLA-DQ Antigens
  • HLA-DQ2 antigen
  • PTPRN protein, human
  • Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 8
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase
  • glutamate decarboxylase 2