Emerging Fusarium-Mycotoxins Fusaproliferin, Beauvericin, Enniatins, and Moniliformin: A Review

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2008 Jan;48(1):21-49. doi: 10.1080/10408390601062021.


The contamination of foods and feed with mycotoxins is a commonly known problem. Intense investigations have been conducted to study the occurrence, toxicity, and recently also the prevention and detoxification strategies of mycotoxins in human and animal food chains. Most of the studies have emphasized on "traditional" mycotoxins, such as aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and trichothecenes. However, one of the most common grain-contaminating genus of fungi, Fusarium spp., is also capable of producing other toxic secondary metabolites - the so-called emerging mycotoxins such as fusaproliferin, beauvericin, enniatins, and moniliformin. So far, only limited data is available on these metabolites. This is not only due to their late recognition but especially the late understanding of their role as mycotoxins. This paper summarizes the existing data on the chemistry, analytical techniques, biosynthesis, production, toxicity, and occurrence data on fusaproliferin, beauvericin, enniatins, and moniliformin. Based on the available studies, attention should be paid to the studies on the distinct significance of these compounds in the human and animal food chains.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cyclobutanes* / analysis
  • Cyclobutanes* / chemistry
  • Cyclobutanes* / toxicity
  • Depsipeptides* / analysis
  • Depsipeptides* / chemistry
  • Depsipeptides* / toxicity
  • Edible Grain / chemistry
  • Food Contamination / analysis
  • Fusarium* / metabolism
  • Mycotoxins*
  • Terpenes* / analysis
  • Terpenes* / chemistry
  • Terpenes* / toxicity


  • Cyclobutanes
  • Depsipeptides
  • Mycotoxins
  • Terpenes
  • enniatins
  • fusaproliferin
  • beauvericin
  • moniliformin