Current knowledge about the presence of amines in wine

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2008 Mar;48(3):257-75. doi: 10.1080/10408390701289441.


This review discusses those factors that have an influence on amine concentration in wine, as well as the vinification stages when these amines are formed and their evolution during the storage of the product. It also outlines the importance of these biogenic and volatile amines both in the sensorial aspect as well as the toxic action. Amines are nitrogenous bases of low molecular weight, which are especially found in food and beverages from the fermentation process, as is the case of wine. Amine concentration in wine can be very variable, ranging from trace levels up to 130 mg/L, so it is difficult to predict the content of these compounds in the product. At present this variability is of some concern in many countries, especially for the toxic effect that some amines can have on people who are susceptible to these substances. Consequently, it is necessary to develop new studies to learn more about the factors, which have an influence on their concentration in wine, and to establish limits for these substances in the product so as to prevent any toxic effects on the consumer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biogenic Amines / analysis*
  • Biogenic Amines / biosynthesis
  • Consumer Product Safety*
  • Fermentation
  • Humans
  • Industrial Microbiology*
  • Molecular Weight
  • Vitis / microbiology
  • Volatilization
  • Wine / analysis*


  • Biogenic Amines