Objective: To explore the effect of millimeter wave exposure at low power density on gene expression in human keratinocytes (HaCaT).
Methods: HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to 30.16 GHz millimeter wave with power densities of 1.0 or 3.5 mW/cm2 for 30 min per day. Gene expression profiles were obtained using the Affymetrix human genome U95A GeneChip. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to confirm the differential expression of genes obtained from Genechip analysis.
Result: PAR-2 and ERGIC-53 genes in HaCaT cells were up-regulated by 3.5 mW/cm2 millimeter wave exposure for 4 times. ERGIC-53 gene was also up-regulated by 1.0 mW/cm2 millimeter wave exposure for 4 times. However, no significant change for PAR-2 expression was found after the same exposure.
Conclusion: Millimeter wave exposure could affect gene expression in human keratinocytes, which might be related to the intensity and the times of exposure.