In Australia and New Zealand the prevalence and incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has increased. In Australia alone the financial burden is estimated to reach $500 million by 2007 (data from the National Chronic Kidney Disease Strategy Workshop Report 2005). The leading cause of ESRD in Australia and New Zealand, and throughout the developed world, is type 2 diabetes, having overtaken glomerulonephritis in 2004.(1) To date, management of patients with diabetes and ESRD has been, according to guidelines, given for patients without ESRD. This commentary raises three important emerging concerns in the clinical care of these patients: (i) the lack of reliable tools to measure glycaemic control; (ii) limitations of the current data set supporting a relationship between outcome and glycaemic control in ESRD; and (iii) lack of studies examining the effect of intensive diabetes care and glucose control in patients with ESRD.