The discovery of secretin initiated the field of endocrinology. Over the past century, multiple gastrointestinal functions of secretin have been extensively studied, and it was discovered that the principal function of this peptide in the gastrointestinal system is to facilitate digestion and to provide protection. In view of the late identification of secretin and the secretin receptor in various tissues, including the central nervous system, the pleiotropic functions of secretin have more recently been an area of intense focus. Secretin is a classical hormone, and recent studies clearly showed secretin's involvement in neural and neuroendocrine pathways, although the neuroactivity and neural regulation of its release are yet to be elucidated. This chapter reviews our current understanding of the pleiotropic actions of secretin with a special focus on the hormonal and neural interdependent pathways that mediate these actions.