Background: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in an HIV-infected population during the highly active antiretroviral era has not been fully evaluated.
Methods: A retrospective chart review of HIV-infected patients seen in 2004 was conducted to determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), using the 2004 National Kidney Foundation's CKD staging criteria. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated, using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Univariate analyses were performed comparing individuals with normal kidney function and those with CKD. Multivariate analysis was conducted including all variables with a value of P < 0.1.
Results: We found evidence of CKD in 24% of the patients. Forty patients (10%) had stage 1 CKD, 19 patients (4%) stage 2, 29 patients (7%) stage 3, 4 patients (1%) stage 4, and 8 patients (2%) stage 5. Patients with CKD are more likely to be African American (AA), older, have AIDS, lower CD4 counts and higher HIV viral loads. Patients with CKD were also more likely to have hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), or both. Indinavir or tenofovir exposure was associated with CKD. In multivariate analysis HTN, AA race, or HTN and DM were the only significant predictors of CKD. Physicians did not identify CKD in 74% of patients. Renal biopsies were done in 10 patients; 5 had HIV-associated nephropathy.
Conclusions: Substantial minorities of HIV-infected patients have CKD. AA race or the presence of HTN or HTN and DM is associated with CKD. Clinicians often do not note the presence of CKD in this population.