The incidence of tuberculosis in Bahia, though declining, remains very high, and one of the severe forms of the disease is tubercular meningitis. This case-control study sought to compare confirmed cases of tubercular meningitis in children 0 to 14 years of age with members of a control group, matched as closely as possible for age (not more than about six months apart), who had shown no sign of meningitis or neurological disease. The comparison considered such factors as schooling of the parents, their occupations, exposure to the bacillus at home, and others. The study showed that failure to vaccinate heightens the risk of contracting the disease--a risk estimated at 11.7 with a confidence interval of 4.5 to 30.5, and an etiological component of 9.14%--and also that the risk is lower the earlier the child is vaccinated. With this study the authors wish to underscore the need to expand the coverage of intradermal BCG vaccination.