Objectives: We hypothesized that transillumination would increase peripheral intravenous (IV) insertion success rates in pediatric emergency department patients. Primary outcome was success in first attempt, and secondary outcome was success within 2 attempts.
Methods: We evaluated IV insertion by pediatric emergency department physicians and nurses using the Veinlite (TransLite, Sugar Land, Tex). Patients who required nonemergent IV insertion were enrolled if younger than 3 years or aged 3 to 21 years with a history of difficult access. Participants were randomly assigned to transillumination or nontransillumination. Analyses were performed using a mixed-effects logistic regression model adjusting for provider effect.
Results: We evaluated 240 patients. After adjusting for significant covariates (safety catheter [P = 0.008], visibility [P = 0.01], and palpability [P = 0.03]) and controlling for provider effect, IV placement was more likely successful in first attempt in transilluminated patients (P = 0.03; odds ratio, 2.1 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.9]). After adjusting for significant covariates (safety catheter [P < 0.001], location [P = 0.005], and palpability [P = 0.05]) and controlling for provider effect, IV placement was more likely successful within 2 attempts in transilluminated patients (P = 0.01; odds ratio, 3.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.9]). Intracluster correlation for random effect of provider was 10% in first attempt and 16% within 2 attempts.
Conclusions: After adjusting for multiple significant covariates and controlling for random effect of provider, our results indicated a benefit in the use of Veinlite transillumination for IV insertion in first attempt and within 2 attempts. This technique seemed to facilitate nonemergent IV placement in pediatric patients compared with standard practice.