Parkinson's disease: recent development in therapies for advanced disease with a focus on deep brain stimulation (DBS) and duodenal levodopa infusion

FEBS J. 2008 Apr;275(7):1370-1376. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2008.06295.x. Epub 2008 Feb 12.


Effective medical treatment for Parkinson's disease has been available for almost 40 years. After several years of treatment with L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa, levodopa), however, fluctuations often occur. The patient may then experience random variations of the motor symptoms during the day. The medication becomes increasingly complicated. New therapeutic methods, deep brain stimulation and duodenal infusion of L-dopa, have proven to be very effective in stabilizing the fluctuations. A clinical update of Parkinson's disease is presented together with a short review of these two methods.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antiparkinson Agents / administration & dosage
  • Antiparkinson Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Deep Brain Stimulation*
  • Duodenum*
  • Humans
  • Infusion Pumps*
  • Levodopa / administration & dosage
  • Levodopa / therapeutic use*
  • Parkinson Disease / drug therapy
  • Parkinson Disease / physiopathology
  • Parkinson Disease / therapy*


  • Antiparkinson Agents
  • Levodopa