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, 66 (3), 453-61

Hemodynamic Changes During the Surgical Removal of Lower Third Molars

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Hemodynamic Changes During the Surgical Removal of Lower Third Molars

Aurelia Alemany-Martínez et al. J Oral Maxillofac Surg.

Abstract

Purpose: This study was conducted to determine the hemodynamic changes in healthy patients during the surgical removal of lower third molars, and to evaluate whether these variations are attributable to patient anxiety and pain experienced during the surgical procedure.

Patients and methods: A prospective study was made of 80 normotensive individuals (40 females and 40 males, mean age, 27 years [range, 18 to 67 years]) seen in the Service of Oral Surgery in the context of the Master's Degree Program in Oral Surgery and Implantology, School of Dentistry, University of Barcelona, for surgical extraction of the lower third molars. Local anesthesia comprised 4% articaine with vasoconstrictor (adrenalin 1:100.000). The following parameters were monitored in each of the surgical interventions: systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), and oxygen saturation (SaO(2)). Finally, tests of patient anxiety (Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale and Kleinknecht's Dental Fear Scale) were carried out, and the degree of pain experienced during the surgical procedure was assessed by means of a visual analog scale.

Results: The females showed higher levels of anxiety. The most anxious patients had the lowest BP values and the highest HR, although the differences did not reach statistical significance. The variations in BP and HR during surgical extraction of the molars were within normal limits. In the case of BP, no significant changes were recorded; the highest mean SBP and DBP values were observed at the time of ostectomy and/or tooth sectioning. The lowest HR values were recorded at baseline, before the start of the surgical procedure, whereas the highest values were obtained during incision and flap raising. The SaO(2) values showed no significant changes and were lower at the start of the surgical procedure.

Conclusions: Most of the cardiovascular changes induced by the surgical extraction of molars were within normal ranges, considering the anxiety and stress induced by surgery. We consider it essential to avoid pain and minimize patient anxiety to ensure safe clinical practice.

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