NLR, the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing gene family

Curr Opin Immunol. 2008 Feb;20(1):3-9. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2008.01.003. Epub 2008 Feb 15.


The NLR (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing) family is found in plants and animals, and serves as crucial regulators of inflammatory and innate immune response, though its functions are likely to extend greatly beyond innate immunity, and even beyond the immune system. This review discusses recent findings regarding the function of NLR proteins in the control of IL-1, NF-kappaB, and host response to pathogens including distinct forms of cell death. The review also covers recent advances regarding the biochemical nature of NLRs, its regulation by intracellular nucleotides and extracellular ATP, by the chaperone protein HSP90, and the ubiquitin ligase-associated protein SGT1. Its role in inflammation is linked to the formation of biochemical complexes such as the inflammasome, and its roles in cell death might be linked to the proposed formation of pyroptosome and necrosome.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Death
  • Immunity, Innate*
  • Leucine / analysis
  • Multigene Family
  • Nod Signaling Adaptor Proteins / chemistry
  • Nod Signaling Adaptor Proteins / genetics
  • Nod Signaling Adaptor Proteins / physiology*
  • Nucleotides / metabolism
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid


  • Nod Signaling Adaptor Proteins
  • Nucleotides
  • Plant Proteins
  • Leucine