We investigated the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment on striated muscle tissue in healthy rats. The treatment group of rats (n=16) was given HBO daily on weekdays for 2 h over a 4-week period while a control group (n=8) was not treated. Tissue samples were taken from the left and right vastus lateralis before and after the HBO treatment period, respectively, for all rats in both groups. Levels of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate, andenosine triphosphate (ATP) and xanthine oxidase in the muscle tissue were determined. HBO treatment caused a statistically significant increase in ATP (p=0.001) and decrease in AMP (p=0.02) in the HBO-treated group, while there were no significant differences in metabolites in the control group. These results suggest that HBO treatment induces an increase in the ATP levels of muscle tissue with normal mitochondria. Thus, HBO might have some beneficial effects in the treatment of heteroplasmic mitochondrial disease, where normal and defective mitochondria coexist.