Head trauma after instrumental births

Clin Perinatol. 2008 Mar;35(1):69-83, viii. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2007.11.006.


Instrumental vaginal delivery involves the use of the vacuum extractor or obstetric forceps to facilitate delivery of the fetus. It is associated with substantial risk of head injury, including hemorrhage, fractures, and, rarely, brain damage or fetal death. This review article describes the different types, etiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, and clinical features of head trauma after instrumental birth, along with their management and prevention strategies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Birth Injuries / etiology*
  • Birth Injuries / prevention & control
  • Contraindications
  • Craniocerebral Trauma / etiology*
  • Craniocerebral Trauma / prevention & control
  • Delivery, Obstetric / adverse effects*
  • Delivery, Obstetric / instrumentation
  • Extraction, Obstetrical / adverse effects
  • Extraction, Obstetrical / instrumentation
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Pregnancy
  • Risk Factors