Chlorotyrosine promotes human aortic smooth muscle cell migration through increasing superoxide anion production and ERK1/2 activation

Atherosclerosis. 2008 Nov;201(1):67-75. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.12.049. Epub 2008 Feb 20.


Chlorotyrosine is an oxidative product of hypochlorous acid and l-tyrosine, and is considered as a biomarker for oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease. However, it is not clear whether chlorotyrosine could directly contribute to vascular pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effect and potential mechanisms of chlorotyrosine on human aortic smooth muscle cell (AoSMC) migration. With Boyden chamber and wound healing assays, chlorotyrosine significantly increased AoSMC migration in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, chlorotyrosine significantly increased the expression of several key molecules related to cell migration including PDGF receptor-B (PDGFR-B), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1 and MMP-2) and integrins (alpha3, alphaV, and beta3) in AoSMC at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, chlorotyrosine also increased superoxide anion generation in AoSMC with the fluorescent dye dihydroethidium (DHE) staining. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was analyzed with Bio-Plex Luminex immunoassay and Western blotting. Chlorotyrosine induced a transient phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not JNK and p38 MAPKs. Antioxidants including selenomethionine (SeMet) and Mn(III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP) as well as ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 effectively blocked chlorotyrosine-induced AoSMC migration. Thus, these findings demonstrate new biological functions of chlorotyrosine in human SMC migration, which may play a crucial role in the vascular lesion formation.

MeSH terms

  • Aorta / drug effects*
  • Aorta / metabolism
  • Aorta / pathology
  • Becaplermin
  • Cell Culture Techniques
  • Cell Movement / drug effects*
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Integrins / metabolism
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism
  • Muscle, Smooth, Vascular / drug effects*
  • Muscle, Smooth, Vascular / metabolism
  • Muscle, Smooth, Vascular / pathology
  • Myocytes, Smooth Muscle / drug effects*
  • Myocytes, Smooth Muscle / enzymology
  • Myocytes, Smooth Muscle / physiology*
  • Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis
  • Superoxides / metabolism
  • Tyrosine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Tyrosine / pharmacology


  • Integrins
  • Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis
  • Superoxides
  • Becaplermin
  • Tyrosine
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases
  • 3-chlorotyrosine