Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I (CN I) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder due to hepatic dysfunction of uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity toward bilirubin. Complete inactivation of this enzyme causing CN I lead to accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin in serum and bile. Here we report the results of the molecular characterization of the uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene in a consanguineous family of Slovak Roms and an unrelated non-Romany family with CN I. Sequence analysis of UGT1A1 gene in all four Romany patients showed mutation in exon 4, a deletion of an A at codon 407 (1220delA), not yet described in homozygous status. All analysed patients were homozygous for 1220delA mutation and their 3 healthy sibs were heterozygous. The non-Romany patient was a compound heterozygote for two different deletions, 1220delA and 717-718delAG at codon 239. In the family of his cousin a son was born affected with CN I, who was homozygote for 717-718delAG mutation. His other niece affected with CN II was heterozygote for mutation 717-718delAG but homozygote for TA insertion and enhancer substitution T-3279G. Haplotype analysis suggests that the 1220delA mutation is identical by descent in both families, though they originate from two ethnically different populations (Slovaks vs. Roms).