Sirtuins have emerged as therapeutic targets to treat age-related diseases. There are seven human Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) that display diversity in cellular localization and function. Growing evidence suggests that small-molecule activators of SIRT1 may counteract age-related afflictions such as type 2 diabetes. Alternatively, inhibitors of SIRT2 may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Recent discoveries of small-molecule and protein modulators of Sirtuin deacetylation activity have provided enormous insight into the biological and molecular functions of Sirtuins and have validated their potential as therapeutics.