Emergence of multidrug-resistant, community-associated, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone USA300 in men who have sex with men

Ann Intern Med. 2008 Feb 19;148(4):249-57. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-148-4-200802190-00204. Epub 2008 Jan 30.


Background: Infection with multidrug-resistant, community-associated, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been reported but seems to be isolated.

Objective: To determine the incidence of a multidrug-resistant MRSA clone (USA300) in San Francisco, and to determine risk factors for the infection.

Design: Population-based survey and cross-sectional study using chart review.

Setting: 9 hospitals in San Francisco (population-based survey) and 2 outpatient clinics in San Francisco and Boston (cross-sectional study).

Patients: Persons with culture-proven MRSA infections in 2004 to 2006.

Measurements: Annual incidence, spatial clustering, and risk factors for multidrug-resistant USA300 infection. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction assays, and DNA sequencing were used to characterize MRSA isolates.

Results: The overall incidence of multidrug-resistant USA300 infection in San Francisco was 26 cases per 100,000 persons (95% CI, 16 to 36 cases per 100,000 persons); the incidence was higher in 8 contiguous ZIP codes with a higher proportion of male same-sex couples. Male-male sex was a risk factor for multidrug-resistant USA300 infection (relative risk, 13.2 [CI, 1.7 to 101.6]; P < 0.001) independent of past MRSA infection (relative risk, 2.1 [CI, 1.2 to 3.7]; P = 0.007) or clindamycin use (relative risk, 2.1 [1.2 to 3.6]; P = 0.007). The risk seemed to be independent of HIV infection. In San Francisco, multidrug-resistant USA300 manifested most often as infection of the buttocks, genitals, or perineum. In Boston, the infection was recovered exclusively from men who had sex with men.

Limitations: The study was retrospective, and sexual risk behavior was not assessed.

Conclusion: Infection with multidrug-resistant USA300 MRSA is common among men who have sex with men, and multidrug-resistant MRSA infection might be sexually transmitted in this population. Further research is needed to determine whether existing efforts to control epidemics of other sexually transmitted infections can control spread of community-associated, multidrug-resistant MRSA.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / epidemiology*
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / microbiology*
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / transmission
  • Community Health Services
  • Community-Acquired Infections / epidemiology
  • Community-Acquired Infections / microbiology
  • Community-Acquired Infections / transmission
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
  • Homosexuality*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Methicillin Resistance
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • San Francisco / epidemiology
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial / epidemiology
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial / microbiology
  • Staphylococcal Infections / epidemiology*
  • Staphylococcal Infections / microbiology*
  • Staphylococcal Infections / transmission
  • Staphylococcus aureus*