Objective: To determine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma ligands improve survival of patients with septic shock we treated a mouse model of sepsis [apolipoprotein (Apo) E) knockout mice] with pioglitazone, a PPAR-gamma ligand. ApoE knockout mice have a high mortality rate due to sepsis because the endotoxin is not cleared.
Design and setting: Prospective study in a university laboratory.
Subjects: We assorted 87 male ApoE knockout mice and 60 wild-type C57/B6 mice randomly into three groups (sepsis, pretreatment, posttreatment).
Interventions: Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was carried out in the sepsis and treatment groups. Mice were injected with pioglitazone (5 mg/kg per day) on the day before CLP or 6 h after surgery.
Measurements and results: Both pre- and post-CLP treatment with pioglitazone improved survival of ApoE knockout and wild-type mice. Serum levels of cytokines and chemokines and myeloperoxidase activity in lung and liver were suppressed in the pioglitazone-treated group. Pioglitazone also suppressed monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium under flow conditions.
Conclusions: Pioglitazone improved survival of ApoE knockout mice after onset of septic shock through suppression of inflammatory responses.