Myocarditis was reported after smallpox vaccination in Europe and Australia, but no association had been reported with the US vaccine. We conducted surveillance to describe and determine the frequency of myocarditis and/or pericarditis (myo/pericarditis) among civilians vaccinated during the US smallpox vaccination program between January and October 2003. We developed surveillance case definitions for myocarditis, pericarditis, and dilated cardiomyopathy after smallpox vaccination. We identified 21 myo/pericarditis cases among 37,901 vaccinees (5.5 per 10,000); 18 (86%) were revacinees, 14 (67%) were women, and the median age was 48 years (range, 25-70 years). The median time from vaccination to onset of symptoms was 11 days (range, 2-42 days). Myo/pericarditis severity was mild, with no fatalities, although 9 patients (43%) were hospitalized. Three additional vaccinees were found to have dilated cardiomyopathy, recognized within 3 months after vaccination. We describe an association between smallpox vaccination, using the US vaccinia strain, and myo/pericarditis among civilians.