Identification of a GP64 subdomain involved in receptor binding by budded virions of the baculovirus Autographica californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus

J Virol. 2008 May;82(9):4449-60. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02490-07. Epub 2008 Feb 20.


Enveloped virus entry into host cells is typically initiated by an interaction between a viral envelope glycoprotein and a host cell receptor. For budded virions of the baculovirus Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus, the envelope glycoprotein GP64 is involved in host cell receptor binding, and GP64 is sufficient to mediate low-pH-triggered membrane fusion. To better define the role of GP64 in receptor binding, we generated and characterized a panel of antisera against subdomains of GP64. Eight subdomain-specific antisera were generated, and their reactivities with GP64 proteins and neutralization of virus infectivity and binding were examined. Antibodies directed against the N-terminal region of GP64 (amino acids 21 to 159) showed strong neutralization of infectivity and effectively inhibited binding of (35)S-labeled budded virions to Sf9 cells. In addition, we generated virions displaying truncated GP64 constructs. A construct displaying the N-terminal 274 amino acids (residues 21 to 294) of the ectodomain was sufficient to mediate virion binding. Additional studies of antisera directed against small subdomains revealed that an antiserum against a 40-amino-acid region (residues 121 to 160) neutralized virus infectivity. Site-directed mutagenesis was subsequently used for functional analysis of that region. Recombinant viruses expressing GP64 proteins with single amino acid substitutions within amino acids 120 to 124 and 142 to 148 replicated to high titers, suggesting that those amino acids were not critical for receptor binding or other important GP64 functions. In contrast, GP64 proteins with single amino acid substitutions of residues 153 and 156 were unable to substitute for wild-type GP64 and did not rescue a gp64 knockout virus. Further analysis showed that these substitutions substantially reduced binding of recombinant virus to Sf9 cells. Thus, the amino acid region from positions 21 to 159 was identified as a putative receptor binding domain, and amino acids 153 and 156 appear to be important for receptor binding.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Substitution
  • Animals
  • Baculoviridae / chemistry
  • Baculoviridae / physiology
  • Cell Line
  • Insecta
  • Nucleopolyhedroviruses / chemistry*
  • Nucleopolyhedroviruses / physiology
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs*
  • Protein Interaction Mapping
  • Receptors, Virus / metabolism*
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / metabolism
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / physiology
  • Viral Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Viral Fusion Proteins / physiology*
  • Virion / metabolism*
  • Virus Attachment*


  • Peptide Fragments
  • Receptors, Virus
  • Viral Envelope Proteins
  • Viral Fusion Proteins