Thrombosis--localized clotting of the blood--can occur in the arterial or the venous circulation and has a major medical impact. Acute arterial thrombosis is the proximal cause of most cases of myocardial infarction (heart attack) and of about 80% of strokes, collectively the most common cause of death in the developed world. Venous thromboembolism is the third leading cause of cardiovascular-associated death. The pathogenic changes that occur in the blood vessel wall and in the blood itself resulting in thrombosis are not fully understood. Understanding these processes is crucial for developing safer and more effective antithrombotic drugs.