Analysis of the expression of biomarkers in urinary bladder cancer using a tissue microarray

Mol Carcinog. 2008 Sep;47(9):678-85. doi: 10.1002/mc.20420.


Dysregulation of Akt, PTEN, Drg-1, Cx-26, and L-plastin expression appear to be important in the progression of various cancers. Their expression in bladder cancer has not been well characterized. To assess the expression of these genes and their relationship to the outcome of bladder cancer, we used a bladder cancer tissue microarray (TMA) of 251 transitional cell carcinomas. We quantitated immunohistochemical staining of each protein using both automated and manual methods and correlated the expression levels with the clinicopathologic characteristics of the tumor and patient survival. Overall, the results from both automated and manual analyses were similar. We found a significant correlation between the expression of PTEN, Cx-26 and L-plastin with known clinically important pathologic features of bladder cancer (tumor grade, stage, and growth pattern). Aberrant localization patterns of Cx-26 and Drg-1 were observed in bladder tumors. There was also a significant correlation in expression among pAkt, PTEN, and L-plastin. Although the expression of these genes correlated with factors known to be associated with patient outcome, none of them was an independent predictor of progression-free or overall survival.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / analysis*
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / genetics*
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology
  • Connexin 26
  • Connexins / genetics
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Gene Expression*
  • Humans
  • Microarray Analysis
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology


  • Biomarkers
  • Connexins
  • Connexin 26
  • developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein
  • GTP-Binding Proteins