The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of sexually transmitted chlamydia infections. A panel of 116 recombinant C. trachomatis proteins was evaluated comparatively to characterize both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in patients with confirmed C. trachomatis genital infection. The antigens identified were categorized as being recognized exclusively by T cells (CT004, CT043, CT184, CT509, and CT611), B cells (CT082, CT089, CT322, CT396, and CT681), or both T cells and B cells (CT110 and CT443). This grouping of C. trachomatis antigens was correlated to their predicted cellular localization. The comparative evaluation presented here indicates that T cell antigens are located in all bacterial compartments, whereas antibody targets are mainly localized to the outer membrane (P = .0013). Overall, we have identified 5 T cell antigens, 5 B cell antigens, and 2 T/B cell antigens that are potential components for a future chlamydia vaccine.