Deformable templates using large deformation kinematics

IEEE Trans Image Process. 1996;5(10):1435-47. doi: 10.1109/83.536892.


A general automatic approach is presented for accommodating local shape variation when mapping a two-dimensional (2-D) or three-dimensional (3-D) template image into alignment with a topologically similar target image. Local shape variability is accommodated by applying a vector-field transformation to the underlying material coordinate system of the template while constraining the transformation to be smooth (globally positive definite Jacobian). Smoothness is guaranteed without specifically penalizing large-magnitude deformations of small subvolumes by constraining the transformation on the basis of a Stokesian limit of the fluid-dynamical Navier-Stokes equations. This differs fundamentally from quadratic penalty methods, such as those based on linearized elasticity or thin-plate splines, in that stress restraining the motion relaxes over time allowing large-magnitude deformations. Kinematic nonlinearities are inherently necessary to maintain continuity of structures during large-magnitude deformations, and are included in all results. After initial global registration, final mappings are obtained by numerically solving a set of nonlinear partial differential equations associated with the constrained optimization problem. Automatic regridding is performed by propagating templates as the nonlinear transformations evaluated on a finite lattice become singular. Application of the method to intersubject registration of neuroanatomical structures illustrates the ability to account for local anatomical variability.