Barriers to and factors facilitating breast cancer screening among Iranian women: a qualitative study

East Mediterr Health J. Sep-Oct 2007;13(5):1160-9. doi: 10.26719/2007.13.5.1160.


This study used qualitative methodology to understand Iranian women's views about barriers to and factors facilitating screening for early detection of breast cancer. Using grounded theory with in-depth interviews of 31 participants, themes emerged from the data in 2 main categories (internal and external) with 3 sub-categories: women's attitudes, feelings and beliefs; women's social network experiences; and accessibility. Facilitating factors for screening were self-care, fear, proactive coping, state of mind and advocacy. Barriers were negligence, cancer-related fear, low self-efficacy, fatalism, misinformation, ineffective health communication and competing priorities.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adult
  • Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Communication Barriers
  • Fear
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Health Services Accessibility / standards*
  • Health Services Needs and Demand
  • Humans
  • Iran / epidemiology
  • Mass Screening* / psychology
  • Mass Screening* / standards
  • Middle Aged
  • Motivation
  • Nursing Methodology Research
  • Occupations / statistics & numerical data
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care / psychology*
  • Qualitative Research
  • Self Efficacy
  • Social Support
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Urban Health / statistics & numerical data
  • Women / education
  • Women / psychology*