The 9th Banff Conference on Allograft Pathology was held in La Coruna, Spain on June 23-29, 2007. A total of 235 pathologists, clinicians and scientists met to address unsolved issues in transplantation and adapt the Banff schema for renal allograft rejection in response to emerging data and technologies. The outcome of the consensus discussions on renal pathology is provided in this article. Major updates from the 2007 Banff Conference were: inclusion of peritubular capillaritis grading, C4d scoring, interpretation of C4d deposition without morphological evidence of active rejection, application of the Banff criteria to zero-time and protocol biopsies and introduction of a new scoring for total interstitial inflammation (ti-score). In addition, emerging research data led to the establishment of collaborative working groups addressing issues like isolated 'v' lesion and incorporation of omics-technologies, paving the way for future combination of graft biopsy and molecular parameters within the Banff process.