Lancet. 2008 Jan 26;371(9609):329-39. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60170-1.


Most children who present with acute onset of barky cough, stridor, and chest-wall indrawing have croup. A careful history and physical examination is the best method to confirm the diagnosis and to rule out potentially serious alternative disorders such as bacterial tracheitis and other rare causes of upper-airway obstruction. Epinephrine delivered via a nebuliser is effective for temporary relief of symptoms of airway obstruction. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment, and benefit is seen in children with all levels of severity of croup, including mild cases.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects
  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use*
  • Airway Obstruction / etiology
  • Bronchodilator Agents / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Cough / etiology
  • Croup / diagnosis*
  • Croup / therapy*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Epinephrine / administration & dosage
  • Humans
  • Humidity
  • Nebulizers and Vaporizers
  • Respiratory Sounds / etiology


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Bronchodilator Agents
  • Epinephrine