The purpose of this study was to assess and quantify the health outcomes associated with a moderate-intensity (50% VO2R) exercise program designed to achieve the American College of Sports Medicine net caloric expenditure guideline of 1,000 kcal x wk(-1). Fifteen apparently healthy but sedentary premenopausal women with the baseline characteristics (mean +/- SD age, height, weight, body composition, and VO2max: 37.4 +/- 6.3 yr, 166.2 +/- 6.2 cm, 72.1 +/- 11.2 kg, 32.5 +/- 5.8%, and 34.8 +/- 5.8 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1), respectively) participated in and completed the study. Exercise training was performed 3-4 days per week for 10 weeks in a progressive manner at moderate intensity (50% VO2R). There were significant (P < 0.05) improvements in VO2max (+2.5 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)), systolic (-13.7 mm Hg) and diastolic (-6.4 mm Hg) blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+3.2 mg x dL(-1)), fasting blood glucose (-4.9 mg x dL(-1)), and percent body fat (-1.6%). Although the American College of Sports Medicine specifies that the energy expenditure goal should be a net caloric expenditure of 1,000 kcal x wk(-1) and classifies relative moderate intensity as 40-59% of heart rate reserve or VO2R, we are unaware of any previous investigations that have examined the specific health outcomes associated with an exercise program fulfilling these requirements. Results indicate that significant health benefits will be conferred to previously sedentary, premenopausal women who engage in a moderate-intensity, 10-week exercise program designed to fulfill the net energy expenditure guideline of 1,000 kcal x wk(-1).