The use of enzymes is a promising approach for site-specific protein modification on living cells owing to their substrate specificity. Herein we describe a general strategy for the site-specific modification of cell surface proteins with synthetic molecules by using Sortase, a transpeptidase from Staphylococcus aureus. The short peptide tag LPETGG is genetically introduced to the C terminus of the target protein, expressed on the cell surface. Subsequent addition of Sortase and an N-terminal triglycine-containing probe results in the site-specific labeling of the tagged protein. We were successful in the C-terminal-specific labeling of osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF) with a biotin- or fluorophore-containing short peptide on the living cell surface. The labeling reaction occurred efficiently in serum-containing medium, as well as serum-free medium or PBS. The labeled products were detected after incubation for 5 min. In addition, site-specific protein-protein conjugation was successfully demonstrated on a living cell surface by the Sortase-catalyzed reaction. This strategy provides a powerful tool for cell biology and cell surface engineering.