Objective: To ascertain the relationship between periods of various antiretroviral therapies and the incidence of first community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia (CAPP) among HIV-1 infected patients.
Methods: We analysed 4075 patients enrolled prospectively in the Lyon section of the French Hospital Database on HIV between 1993 and 2004, stratified into three groups. The first group (G1) included patients for whom enrolment and last follow-up were before the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) period (beginning 1 July 1996); the second group (G2) comprised patients who were enrolled before HAART but had last follow-up in the HAART period; the third group (G3) included patients for whom both enrolment and last follow-up took place in the HAART period.
Results: Fifty-five CAPP episodes were identified. The incidence of CAPP per 1000 patient-years declined over time, from 10.6 to 1.5 and 2.5 in calendar periods G1, G2 and G3, respectively (P=0.004 for linear trend). Factors associated with a decreased risk of CAPP were lower age, baseline CD4 count >or=200 cells/microL and more recent years of enrolment, when HAART use became extensive (P<0.001). The use of intravenous drugs increased the risk of CAPP (P<0.001).
Conclusions: There has been a significant reduction in the incidence of CAPP in HIV-1 infected patients since the advent of HAART.